The basic procedures for manually making programming changes to handheld radios.
Here is a neat video from Dave Casler, KE0OG, on programming most VHF/UHF radios.
Let’s start in alphabetical order. First the BaoFeng:
The first thing you must know is what menu items you wish to program.
Let’s say we want to set up to communicate through a new repeater that our radio is not currently set up to use. In this example, we are going to use frequency 146.985 as our repeater frequency with a minus offset of 600KHz, a 100Hz tone utilizing all 4 watts the handheld is capable of and store the entry into an empty channel. For our purposes, we will assume that channel 10 is empty.
The menu options we will be using are as follows:
MENU 2: Transmit Power
MENU 5: Wideband/Narrowband
MENU 13: CTCSS Transmit
MENU 25: Direction of Frequency Shift
MENU 26: Offset (Frequency Shift in MHz) 600KHz would be .600MHz
MENU 27: Memory Channel Programming
Okay, with all of that information, how do we begin? The first thing we need to do after we turn our radio on is to note whether we are in Frequency or Channel mode. If you have your radio set to provide voice prompts, it will tell you when you turn the radio on, or when you press the [V/M] button. That is the little orange button (color may vary depending precise model) on the face of the radio.
If you are in channel mode, press the [V/M] button to change to Frequency mode. Next, make sure A entry has the little triangle to the left of it. If the bottom or B entry has the little triangle, press the [A/B] button so the triangle is to the left of the top entry. Now on the keypad press all six digits of the frequency we want to work with. In our example that is 146.985, so press -----. You will hear the radio repeating each number. Now press the [MENU] button and then the  and then [MENU]. Press the up or down triangle buttons so the display shows HIGH. Press [MENU] to confirm. I am suggesting the high power setting because with our handhelds the choice is either LOW – 1 watt, or HIGH – 4 watts. The 4 watts will give us a better chance of communicating with a repeater. Although a lot will depend upon your antenna.
Next we want to set the bandwidth. In this example we are going to select WIDE. Press [MENU] button and then  and then [MENU]. Press the up or down triangles until WIDE is displayed. Press [MENU] to confirm. Press [MENU] and then press [EXIT].
Next we want to set the Transmit CTCSS, so press [MENU] and then + and [MENU]. Use the up or down triangles until 100 Hz is displayed and then press [MENU]. Press [MENU] and then press [EXIT].
Now we want to define the Direction of Frequency Shift
Press [MENU] then + and then [MENU]. The default if OFF, so press the up or down triangles until a minus sign [-] sign is displayed. Press [MENU] to confirm. Press [MENU] and then [EXIT].
Next we want to define the amount of the Frequency Shift. As noted above we want .600 MHz, which is the default, but lets make sure.
Press [MENU] and then [2}+ and then [MENU]. If the setting is correct then you can press [EXIT]. If the setting is not correct, simply use the keypad to enter the correct offset. It should display as 00.600. When correct, press [MENU] to confirm. Press [MENU] and then [EXIT].
Now our final step is to store this new information in an unused channel. If you remember, we are using channel 010 as our unused channel.
Press[ MENU] and then + and then [MENU]. Press [MENU] and [Exit]. This stores the receive frequency. The radio will prompt that the receive frequency has been stored.
Enter +++++, which is the transmit frequency.
Press MENU and then ++[MENU]+[MENU]+[EXIT] The radio will respond that the Transmit Frequency has been stored.
Okay, I know that seems like a lot of trouble and you are right. Setting up your channels through a computer interface is so much easier, but it is important to have a least a basic understanding the manual programming process if we need to make some kind of change on the fly.
Just remember, once a channel is programmed, it cannot be changed, except by deleting it and re-creating it. Please see my previous post on the Difference between Frequency and Channel mode for more information.